Machine Learning Mastery

A popular definition originates from Arthur Samuel in 1959: machine learning is a subfield of computer science that gives “computers the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed.” In practice, this means developing computer programs that can make predictions based on data. Just as humans can learn from experience, so can computers, where data experience.a machine learning workflow is the process required for carrying out a machine learning project. Though individual projects can differ, most workflows share several common tasks: problem evaluation, data exploration, data preprocessing, model training/testing/deployment, etc. The ideal course introduces the entire process and provides interactive examples, assignments, and/or quizzes where students can perform each task themselvesIt is useful to tour the main algorithms in the field to get a feeling of what methods are available. There are so many algorithms that it can feel overwhelming when algorithm names are thrown around and you are expected to just know what they are and where they fitI want to give you two ways to think about and categorize the algorithms you may come across in the field. I want to give you two ways to think about and categorize the algorithms you may come across in the field. The second is a grouping of algorithms by their similarity in form or function (like grouping similar animals together). Both approaches are useful, but we will focus in on the grouping of algorithms by similarity and go on a tour of a variety of different algorithm types. After reading this post, you will have a much better understanding of the most popular machine learning algorithms for supervised learning and how they are related. There are different ways an algorithm can model a problem based on its interaction with the experience or environment or whatever we want to call the input data. It is popular in machine learning and artificial intelligence textbooks to first consider the learning styles that an algorithm can adopt. There are only a few main learning styles or learning models that an algorithm can have and we’ll go through them here with a few examples of algorithms and problem types that they suit. This taxonomy or way of organizing machine learning algorithms is useful because it forces you to think about the roles of the input data and the model preparation process and select one that is the most appropriate for your problem in order to get the best result. Input data is called training data and has a known label or result such as spam/not-spam or a stock price at a time. A model is prepared through a training process in which it is required to make predictions and is corrected when those predictions are wrong. The training process continues until the model achieves a desired level of accuracy on the training dataExample problems are classification and regression.

AI Trends

The number of AI solutions that are being developed for IT will increase in 2021. Capgemini’s Simion predicts that AI solutions that can detect common IT problems on its own and self-correct any small malfunctions or issues will see an increase in the upcoming years. This will reduce downtime and allow the teams in an organisation to work on high-complexity projects and focus elsewhere. Rico Burnett, the director of client innovation at legal services provider Exigent, says that Artificial Intelligence will play a significant role in the broad adoption of Cloud Solutions in 2021. Through the deployment of artificial intelligence, it will be possible to monitor and manage cloud resources and the vast amount of available data. Over the last few years, the complexity of IT systems has increased. Forrester recently said that vendors would want platform solutions that combine more than one monitoring discipline such as application, infrastructure, and networking. IT operations and other teams can improve their key processes, decision making, and tasks with AIOps solutions and improved analysis of the volumes of data coming its way. Forrester advised the IT leaders to find AIOps providers who will empower the cross-team collaboration through end-to-end digital experiences, data correlation, and integration of the IT operations management toolchain.  In the future, we will see more unstructured data is structured with natural language processing and machine learning processes. Organisations will leverage these technologies and create data that RPA or robotic process automation technology can use when they want to automate transactional activity in an organisation.  RPA is one of the fastest-growing areas in the software industry. The only limitation that it faces is that it can only use structured data. With the help of AI, unstructured data can easily be converted into structured data, which can provide a defined output. We have seen continuous growth in adoption of AI within the IT industry. However, Simion predicts that organisations will use AI in production and start using them at a large scale. With the help of artificial intelligence, an organisation can get ROI in real-time. This means that organisations will see their efforts being paid off. Natalie Cartwright, co-founder and COO of Finn AI, an AI banking platform, predicts that in 2021, organisations will deliver expertise on how to leverage artificial intelligence against major global problems, stimulate innovation and economic growth, and ensure inclusion and diversity. As AI ethics become more important to organisations, transparency of data and algorithm fairness are two of the issues that are in the spotlight.

Open AI

OpenAI’s mission is to ensure that artificial general intelligence (AGI)—by which we mean highly autonomous systems that outperform humans at most economically valuable work—benefits all of humanity. We will attempt to directly build safe and beneficial AGI, but will also consider our mission fulfilled if our work aids others to achieve this outcome. We commit to use any influence we obtain over AGI’s deployment to ensure it is used for the benefit of all, and to avoid enabling uses of AI or AGI that harm humanity or unduly concentrate power.Our primary fiduciary duty is to humanity. We anticipate needing to marshal substantial resources to fulfill our mission, but will always diligently act to minimize conflicts of interest among our employees and stakeholders that could compromise broad benefit.We are committed to doing the research required to make AGI safe, and to driving the broad adoption of such research across the AI community. We are concerned about late-stage AGI development becoming a competitive race without time for adequate safety precautions. Therefore, if a value-aligned, safety-conscious project comes close to building AGI before we do, we commit to stop competing with and start assisting this project. We will work out specifics in case-by-case agreements, but a typical triggering condition might be “a better-than-even chance of success in the next two years.” To be effective at addressing AGI’s impact on society, OpenAI must be on the cutting edge of AI capabilities—policy and safety advocacy alone would be insufficient. We believe that AI will have broad societal impact before AGI, and we’ll strive to lead in those areas that are directly aligned with our mission and expertise. We will actively cooperate with other research and policy institutions; we seek to create a global community working together to address AGI’s global challenges. We are committed to providing public goods that help society navigate the path to AGI. We have seen continuous growth in adoption of AI within the IT industry. However, Simion predicts that organisations will use AI in production and start using them at a large scale. With the help of artificial intelligence, an organisation can get ROI in real-time. This means that organisations will see their efforts being paid off.  Today this includes publishing most of our AI research, but we expect that safety and security concerns will reduce our traditional publishing in the future, while increasing the importance of sharing safety, policy, and standards research.

Chatbot’s Life

Chatbot's Life is a Chatbot Publication and Consulting Company. We help companies create great chatbots and share insights along the way. We are an end to end consulting company with a focus on product design, user experience and levering the power of a conversational platform. Our publication covers the latest News and Developments in AI, NLP, Chatbots, Messenger Apps, and other tech developments. Our articles also focus on Chatbot Design, User Experience, Creating Hooks, Virility, On-Boarding, Conversational Commerce, Chatbots Development, NLP, and more. We have a strong focus on Tutorials and Coding Guides. Artificial intelligence and data science will prove to be a part of a bigger picture when it comes to innovation and automation in 2021. Data ecosystems are scalable, lean, and also provide data on time to heterogeneous sources. However, it is necessary to provide a foundation to adapt and foster innovation. According to Ana Maloberti, a big data engineer at Globant, companies will go a step further in optimising their augmented business and development processes. Using Artificial Intelligence, software development processes can be optimised, and we can look for a wider collective intelligence and improved collaboration. We must foster a data-driven culture and grow out of the experimental stages to move into a sustainable delivery model. A chatbot is an artificial intelligence (AI) software that can simulate a conversation (or a chat) with a user in natural language through messaging applications, websites, mobile apps or through the telephone. Why are chatbots important? A chatbot is often described as one of the most advanced and promising expressions of interaction between humans and machines. However, from a technological point of view, a chatbot only represents the natural evolution of a Question Answering system leveraging Natural Language Processing (NLP). Formulating responses to questions in natural language is one of the most typical Examples of Natural Language Processing applied in various enterprises’ end-use applications. This process may look simple; in practice, things are quite complex. Once the user’s intent has been identified, the chatbot must provide the most appropriate response for the user’s request. The answer may be: Chatbot applications streamline interactions between people and services, enhancing customer experience. At the same time, they offer companies new opportunities to improve the customers engagement process and operational efficiency by reducing the typical cost of customer service. To be successful, a chatbot solution should be able to effectively perform both of these tasks. Human support plays a key role here: Regardless of the kind of approach and the platform, human intervention is crucial in configuring, training and optimizing the chatbot system. There are different approaches and tools that you can use to develop a chatbot. Depending on the use case you want to address, some chatbot technologies are more appropriate than others. In order to achieve the desired results, the combination of different AI forms such as natural language processing, machine learning and semantic understanding may be the best option.

Artificial – Intelligence Blog

Flyweis Technology delivers the world’s most technically advanced security intelligence to disrupt adversaries, empower defenders, and protect organizations. Flyweis Technology’s proactive and predictive platform provides elite, context-rich, actionable intelligence in real time that’s intuitive and ready for integration across the security ecosystem.this text aims to impart an understanding of the important and relatively new discipline that focuses on the hidden side of the government. Such hidden side of the government includes secret agencies that provide security-related information to policymakers and carry out other covert operations on their behalf. The objective of this book is to provide an up-to-date assessment of the literature and findings in this field of strategic intelligence and national security intelligence study. This book seeks to map out the discipline and aim to suggest future research agendas. In this text, several nationalities, career experiences, and scholarly training are reflected, highlighting the spread of interest in this subject across many boundaries. The outcome of this mix is a volume loaded in research disciplines, findings, and agendas, with a multitude of international perspectives on the subject of national security intelligence. Similar to unraveling a math word problem, Security Intelligence: A Practitioner's Guide to Solving Enterprise Security Challenges guides you through a deciphering process that translates each security goal into a set of security variables, substitutes each variable with a specific security technology domain, formulates the equation that is the deployment strategy, then verifies the solution against the original problem by analyzing security incidents and mining hidden breaches, ultimately refines the security formula iteratively in a perpetual cycle. You will learn about Secure proxies - the necessary extension of the endpointsApplication identification and control - visualize the threats As the hype around AI has accelerated, vendors have been scrambling to promote how their products and services use AI. Often what they refer to as AI is simply one component of AI, such as machine learning. AI requires a foundation of specialized hardware and software for writing and training machine learning algorithms. No one programming language is synonymous with AI, but a few, including Python, R and Java, are popular.In general, AI systems work by ingesting large amounts of labeled training data, analyzing the data for correlations and patterns, and using these patterns to make predictions about future states. In this way, a chatbot that is fed examples of text chats can learn to produce lifelike exchanges with people, or an image recognition tool can learn to identify and describe objects in images by reviewing millions of examples.programming focuses on three cognitive skills: learning, reasoning and self-correction.This aspect of AI programming focuses on acquiring data and creating rules for how to turn the data into actionable information. The rules, which are called algorithms, provide computing devices with step-by-step instructions for how to complete a specific task.

MIT News Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been part of computing since the 1950s. But it’s only been since 2000 that AI systems have been able to accomplish useful tasks like classifying images or understanding spoken language. And only very recently has Machine Learning advanced to a point such that significant AI computations can be performed on the smartphones and tablets available to students. MIT is building tools into App Inventor that will enable even beginning students to create original AI applications that would have been advanced research a decade ago. This creates new opportunities for students to explore the possibilities of AI and empowers students as creators of the digital future.AI with MIT App Inventor includes tutorial lessons as well as suggestions for student explorations and project work. Each unit also includes supplementary teaching materials: lesson plans, slides, unit outlines, assessments and alignment to the Computer Science Teachers of America (CSTA) K12 Computing Standards. As with all MIT App Inventor efforts, the emphasis is on active constructionist learning where students create projects and programs that instantiate their ideas.Machine learning is behind chatbots and predictive text, language translation apps, the shows Netflix suggests to you, and how your social media feeds are presented. It powers autonomous vehicles and machines that can diagnose medical conditions based on images. When companies today deploy artificial intelligence programs, they are most likely using machine learning — so much so that the terms are often used interchangeably, and sometimes ambiguously. Machine learning is a subfield of artificial intelligence that gives computers the ability to learn without explicitly being programmed.“In just the last five or 10 years, machine learning has become a critical way, arguably the most important way, most parts of AI are done,” said MIT Sloan professorThomas W. Malone, the founding director of the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence. “So that's why some people use the terms AI and machine learning almost as synonymous … most of the current advances in AI have involved machine learning.”Top of FormWith the growing ubiquity of machine learning, everyone in business is likely to encounter it and will need some working knowledge about this field. A 2020 Deloitte survey found that 67% of companies are using machine learning, and 97% are using or planning to use it in the next year.From manufacturing to retail and banking to bakeries, even legacy companies are using machine learning to unlock new value or boost efficiency. “Machine learning is changing, or will change, every industry, and leaders need to understand the basic principles, the potential, and the limitations,” said MIT computer science professor Aleksander Madry, director of the MIT Center for Deployable Machine Learning.While not everyone needs to know the technical details, they should understand what the technology does and what it can and cannot do, Madry added. “I don’t think anyone can afford not to be aware of what’s happening.”

Chatbot Magazine

Chatbots Magazine (or just CBM) is the most widely read and respected source for information about chatbots: How they work, what you can do with them, HOW to do it, and what the big issues are. We also dive into artificial intelligence, machine learning, natural language processing, and more. We have more than 100,000 readers and 250,000 reads every month, and growing. Our readers range widely: marketers, business people, software developers, AI researchers, journalists, and people who are simply interested in the chatbot explosion. Don’t be shy! We love to hear from readers and aspiring writers. Chatbot technology is becoming a bigger part of our lives as consumers and in business. Here’s how chatbots, with the influence of AI, are shaking customer service up. What is a chatbot? Companies use chatbots to engage with customers alongside the classic customer service channels of phone, email, and social media. Their popularity is on the rise: service organizations have increased their adoption of chatbots — often powered by artificial intelligence (AI) — by nearly two-thirds since 2018. In the workplace, businesses use chatbots to boost agent productivity and efficiency in a range of ways. Chatbots quickly give service reps the information they need, serving up relevant resources even as the context of a conversation changes. Chatbots also speed up self-service options for customers and resolve common issues such as checking claims status, modifying orders, and more. Technically speaking, a chatbot (derived from “chat robot”) is a computer program that simulates human conversation, either via voice or text communication. These programs can be customized and used in a variety of ways. Most of us are familiar with bots for customer service in our consumer lives, and also with popular chat and messaging platforms like SMS, Facebook Messenger, WhatsApp, and WeChat. With chatbots, people can have a conversation with a person (a sales rep or a support agent, for instance), or interact with a software program that helps them find answers quickly. Most importantly, a chatbot can influence a customer relationship by responding to requests faster while meeting customer expectations. With the potential for delivering instant responses around the clock, chatbots free up customer support teams to apply their emotional intelligence to more complex queries. One of the earliest examples of a chatbot was a program called ELIZA, built by Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Joseph Weizenbaum in the mid-1960s to simulate a psychotherapist. Using keywords and pattern matching, ELIZA responded to a user’s typed questions with simple open-ended replies, based on a script. Later chatbot models included SmarterChild, offered as part of the desktop version of AOL Instant Messenger in the early 2000s. SmarterChild was a rudimentary digital assistant, retrieving requested information like movie showtimes and weather reports.Over the years, developers have incorporated more sophisticated techniques to enable chatbots to better understand people’s questions and provide more useful responses.While today’s bots still can’t handle all customer queries, they can respond to frequently asked questions or perform straightforward tasks.“Out of the pool of problems your customers have, there are some that are best suited for a talk with a human. But that’s not something as common as ‘reset my password.’ Agents’ time is precious, so save them for the complex stuff … Let the chatbot take care of the simpler jobs,” wrote Greg Bennett, conversation design principal at Salesforce./The simplest form of a chatbot system tackles tasks by parsing customer input, then scans its database for articles related to certain words and phrases. In short, it operates like a document retrieval system based on keywords. For example, a cosmetics company might create a bot that engages users with questions about their makeup preferences, then recommends products and offers that match their responses.In these cases, the computer program behind the chatbot works to a rigid set of predefined rules and has little ability to recognize the way people naturally speak. Think about the times you may have typed a question into a website’s dialogue box and received an answer that didn’t make sense. That’s likely because the chatbot program recognized keywords in your request, but not the context in which they were used.

Top Box

In the days of analog TV, cable boxes descrambled the premium channels and managed the high channel numbers very early TVs did not support. For today's digital service, the cable box decodes MPEG video frames, decrypts the premium channels and stores and displays the program guides. Also providing upstream communications for video-on-demand, digital cable boxes often have a built-in DVR for recording content on a hard drive. Many cable TV companies also offer Internet service, but their set-top boxes are only for TV. The cable coming into the house is split into two lines: one to the set-top box and the other to the cable modem for Internet access. See MPEG, DVR, CableCARD, cable modem and hybrid set-top box. The Motorola unit (top) connects to the cable company's coaxial cable, whereas the Apple TV (only four inches wide) gets its content via Ethernet or Wi-Fi. In practice, today's streaming set-top boxes are often hidden in the A/V cabinet and nothing much to look at. These three plug into the A/V receiver via HDMI and connect to the home network via the Ethernet switch. Older set-top boxes such as this Roku unit had analog outputs to accommodate legacy TVs. However, HDMI has pretty much replaced this variety of connectivity (see HDMI).A device that converts video content to analog or digital TV signals. For years, the set-top box (STB) was the cable box that "sat on top" of the TV. Although no more flat surface to rest anything, the term lives on. A satellite TV set-top box is officially a "satellite receiver," and the box that converts over-the-air digital broadcasts to analog for old TVs is a "converter" (see TV converter box). Apple TV, Fire TV, Android TV and Roku boxes connect to the home network for Internet access and convert video from Netflix, Hulu and other providers into TV signals. These "media hubs" go by many names and may accept local content from the home network as well (see digital media hub). n the past, set top boxes were mostly used for cable and satellite television. The STB could deliver more channels than a television's own channel numbering system. It received signals containing data for multiple channels and filtered out the channel a user wanted to view. The numerous channels were generally transmitted to an auxiliary channel on the television. Other features included a decoder for pay-per-view and premium channels. Today, most STB systems have two-way communication, allowing for interactive features like adding premium channels directly from the device or incorporating Internet access.

Science Daily

An international team of scientists identified the snake and its range, which includes Turkey, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Iraq, Iran, and Russia including a small region extending into the corner An enormous amount of gravity from a cluster of distant galaxies causes space to curve so much that light from them is bent and emanated our way from numerous directions. This “gravitational lensing” effect has allowed University of Copenhagen astronomers to observe the same exploding star in three different places in the heavens. They predict that a fourth image of the same explosion will appear in the sky by 2037. The study, which has recently been published in the journal Nature Astronomy, provides a unique opportunity to explore not just the supernova itself, but the expansion of our universe. One of the most fascinating aspects of Einstein’s famed theory of relativity is that gravity is no longer described as a force, but as a “curvature” of space itself. The curvature of space caused by heavy objects does not just cause planets to spin around stars, but can also bend the orbit of light beams.The heaviest of all structures in the universe — galaxy clusters made up of hundreds or thousands of galaxies — can bend light from distant galaxies behind them so much that they appear to be in a completely different place than they actually are.But that’s not it: light can take several paths around a galaxy cluster, making it possible for us to get lucky and make two or more sightings of the same galaxy in different places in the sky using a powerful telescope.Some routes around a galaxy cluster are longer than others, and therefore take more time. The slower the route, the stronger the gravity; yet another astonishing consequence of relativity. This staggers the amount of time needed for light to reach us, and thereby the different images that we see.This wondrous effect has allowed a team of astronomers at the Cosmic Dawn Center — a basic research center run by the Niels Bohr Institute at the University of Copenhagen and DTU Space at the Technical University of Denmark — along with their international partners, to observe a single galaxy in no less than four different places in the sky.We know that the universe is expanding, and that different methods allow us to measure by how fast. The problem is that the various measurement methods do not all produce the same result, even when measurement uncertainties are taken into account. Could our observational techniques be flawed, or — more interestingly — will we need to revise our understandings of fundamental physics and cosmology.

Google Research blog

Every day, computer science researchers are working to solve big problems that impact all of our lives — from expanding accessibility in wearable technology to improving the lives of rural farmers through AI. For CS research to explore issues that impact all communities, it’s crucial that the researchers themselves are representative of those communities. However, in 2020, less than 10% of computer science Ph.D. degrees in the United States were awarded to researchers from historically marginalized groups in computing.Vision-language modeling grounds language understanding in corresponding visual inputs, which can be useful for the development of important products and tools. For example, an image captioning model generates natural language descriptions based on its understanding of a given image. While there are various challenges to such cross-modal work, significant progress has been made in the past few years on vision-language modeling thanks to the adoption of effective vision-language pre-training (VLP). This approach aims to learn a single feature space from both visual and language inputs, rather than learning two separate feature spaces, one each for visual inputs and another for language inputs. For this purpose, existing VLP often leverages an object detector, like Faster R-CNN, trained on labeled object detection datasets to isolate regions-of-interest (ROI), and relies on task-specific approaches (i.e., task-specific loss functions) to learn representations of images and texts jointly. Such approaches require annotated datasets or time to design task-specific approaches, and so, are less scalable. To address this challenge, in “SimVLM: Simple Visual Language Model Pre-training with Weak Supervision”, we propose a minimalist and effective VLP, named SimVLM, which stands for “Simple Visual Language Model”. SimVLM is trained end-to-end with a unified objective, similar to language modeling, on a vast amount of weakly aligned image-text pairs (i.e., the text paired with an image is not necessarily a precise description of the image). The simplicity of SimVLM enables efficient training on such a scaled dataset, which helps the model to achieve state-of-the-art performance across six vision-language benchmarks. Moreover, SimVLM learns a unified multimodal representation that enables strong zero-shot cross-modality transfer without fine-tuning or with fine-tuning only on text data, including for tasks such as open-ended visual question answering, image captioning and multimodal translation.Unlike existing VLP methods that adopt pre-training procedures similar to masked language modeling (like in BERT), SimVLM adopts the sequence-to-sequence framework and is trained with a one prefix language model (PrefixLM) objective, which receives the leading part of a sequence (the prefix) as inputs, then predicts its continuation. For example, given the sequence “A dog is chasing after a yellow ball”, the sequence is randomly truncated to “A dog is chasing” as the prefix, and the model will predict its continuation. The concept of a prefix similarly applies to images, where an image is divided into a number of “patches”, then a subset of those patches are sequentially fed to the model as inputs—this is called an “image patch sequence”. In SimVLM, for multimodal inputs (e.g., images and their captions), the prefix is a concatenation of both the image patch sequence and prefix text sequence, received by the encoder. The decoder then predicts the continuation of the textual sequence. Compared to prior VLP models combining several pre-training losses, the PrefixLM loss is the only training objective and significantly simplifies the training process.

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